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Turning metal on a wood lathe. Small items are possible

Aluminium finial turned on a wood lathe

Turning metal on a wood lathe is possible, even though the wood lathe is not designed for it. Lathes are designed specifically for either woodturning or engineering purposes, rarely both. The tool holder of a heavily-built engineering lathe clamps the cutting tool firmly and moves mechanically. But if you don’t have an engineering lathe and aren’t too ambitious, you can turn small items in brass, aluminium or even steel freehand quite successfully on a wood lathe. I turned the aluminium finial shown above on my Graduate Shortbed lathe, mainly using a small gouge, cutting as if the metal were wood. I threaded the finial onto a bit of 12 mm studding held in a chuck. Even with tailstock support, that was not rigid enough, so I had to sand it to an acceptable finish. It is about 5 inches tall.

There are problems to overcome. Holding the tool in your hand so that it cuts steel is difficult. The hardness of the metal resists the cut, and the cut is very liable to ‘chatter’. This is vibration that leaves a rough or ridged surface on the work. Working freehand, accuracy is harder to achieve. Some wood lathes have a proper slide rest as an accessory, but without that accuracy comes from the turner’s skill. Making true cylinders or flat surfaces accurate to a thousandth of an inch freehand is not easy. But many items don’t need such precision.

Interrupted cuts, such as turning the corners off square stock, are particularly difficult freehand because it is hard to control the cutting tool. It is risky, too.

Preventing chatter

Woodturners are familiar with the problem of chatter. When turning metal on a wood lathe it is hard to avoid. To prevent chatter, you need a strongly built lathe, with good bearings. It must hold the workpiece firmly. The workpiece must be stiff, or well supported, so it doesn’t flex. That means minimum projection from the headstock. For example, modifying a drive centre while it is in the spindle taper is easy. A similar job held in a chuck is harder, because the metal can move away from the cutting tool.

Use tailstock support whenever possible. A Jacobs chuck will hold small items. Light cuts using a robust and sharp tool, with minimum projection over the toolrest, should then produce an acceptable result.

The tools

You can use a high speed steel woodturning scraper or a graver. A graver, which you can easily make yourself, was traditionally made from square section tool steel with a diagonal flat, leaving a long point at one corner. You could convert a triangular or square file, but a high speed steel tool bit would be better. A round high speed steel bar ground with a pyramid point would work. It would be similar to a woodturning point tool, but with a more obtuse point. Use a graver a bit like a skew chisel. Its edges (not the point) can plane off long, thin curly shavings from steel.

Brass likes tools with zero top rake, so responds well to scrapers. Tools leave a polished surface on brass. Aluminium turns with a graver or even a small short-beveled bowl gouge. Cutting speeds are lower than for wood, but because only small items are possible, the normal low-speed setting on the lathe is probably OK. Some metal alloys are more free-cutting and ‘turnable’ than others. A file will shape the item and remove chatter marks if necessary. Even on a lightweight lathe you can make simple shapes (for example putting a pointed end on a short bit of rod) in steel using a file, an angle grinder or a rotating grinding wheel held in a drill chuck.

Turning metal on a wood lathe is tiring, particularly with steel, because the tool must be held firmly up to the work. It helps to use a pivot pin in the toolrest to lever the tool into the work. This gives more control. If the workpiece is held rigidly, the pivot pin can help prevent chatter too.

Safety when turning metal on a wood lathe

Turning metal freehand is hazardous, therefore precautions are necessary. It is essential that the workpiece is secure in the lathe. Chunks of metal flying out of the machine are even more likely to do you harm than are lumps of wood. Eye protection is a must. The swarf is sharp and hot – wood chips hitting your hand are annoying, but metal swarf can cut or burn. Long strands could even catch your fingers and drag them in. Never clear away swarf while the lathe is running.

Turning with a scraper can make chips like little needles. They can get in your skin like splinters. But gloves are risky around moving machinery because they can catch and drag your hand in. Thin ‘rubber’ gloves that can easily tear are safer. A bad dig-in could wrench the cutting tool hard enough to break it and perhaps cause injury. A file thrown back by the chuck jaws can injure you. Tools must always be used with a proper handle to stop the tang impaling your hand.

6 thoughts on “Turning metal on a wood lathe. Small items are possible

  1. Reading this article really helped me out on my decision to get a wood lathe to start turning rings! I guess the only thing left for me to figure out is what voltage would be recommended in getting. The metals I plan on using to turn would be, brass, stainless steel, copper, and whatever else a certain coin is made out of. Any recommendations?

    1. Joshua, I have no experience of lower voltage machines. But power is not too much of an issue for small items, even in metal. You should choose a lathe built for rigidity. You will have to think about how you will hold the coins/rings. Brass should turn well, but stainless steel could be a problem. Some grades are liable to work hardening, so if the tool rubs on the metal it becomes too hard to turn easily.

      1. Thank you for replying to this in such a quick manner.
        So for the stainless steel and all other metal I’ll be using I’ll only really be turning them slightly. I’m using a more manual method to shape the metal into a ring but I was thinking about using a lathe to just turn them down slightly just to define the shape of the ring.
        The machine I’m currently looking at is said to go as high as 3500 RPM. Dont know if that’ll help you determine the answer. But as far as holding the rings in place Ive watched a couple of videos on how to make a ring holder for turning rings using wood so holding the rings wouldn’t be the issue.
        Again thank you again for the insight! This is really going to help me out!

        1. You don’t want high speed when turning metal, certainly not that fast, it will cause vibration in the work. And I have my doubts about a wooden chuck, although you say you have seen it done. I’d have thought the cutting forces could easily pull the metal loose. You have to prevent the metal from moving away from the cutting edge. A solid grip without vibration is really important if you want a good finish off the tool.
          I think you could achieve quite a lot with a good wood lathe, but a metal lathe is designed and equipped for the work. So I don’t necessarily recommend getting a wood lathe in order to do metal turning, although if you have one, you can do some metal work on it. The wood lathe could do a lot more than make rings, of course. I have a metal lathe, but if I just wanted to shape a profile into the edge of a small ring of soft metal I would try hand tools and my wood lathe. Do please let me know how you get on.

          If you find the stainless steel hardens, you could try tungsten carbide tipped tools. And you might be able to grind the metal to shape while it spins in the lathe using abrasives or a dremel type tool or a file.

          How will you shape the rings?

  2. I came here looking for some insight into turning metal objects on a wood lathe and your post has been great. I have a small project that I need this for, but I’m still not sure if I want to risk my lathe or my health with this. It sounds pretty dangerous, especially since I’m not that experienced with metalwork.

    1. Michael, the risk is low if the item is held securely, it is round to start with and not too big, and if you go gently with the tools and keep the speed down. You should wear a face shield for all your turning. I don’t think it is likely to harm the lathe.

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